Pop-Culture | Posted by Julie Z on 10/28/2009

The Disney Princesses and Sexism

disneyprincesses

I found this picture on feministing yesterday. Considering the response to my last post about Disney, I thought you guys might find this pic interesting.

I think the sexism they point out in the picture is legitimate as far as plot lines go, but statements like, “Her only asset, physical beauty…” and “her only asset, sexuality” get to me a little bit. Sure, I think Disney created some pretty sexist characters here. But they weren’t exactly dumb bimbos who acted without any purpose throughout the entirety of the movies.

As I recall, I actually identified with Belle quite a bit because we were both voracious readers. I’d say an appetite for literature is a pretty good asset to have. And Jasmine was totally empowered by demanding to marry only who she wanted.

So, yes, these characters were definitely crafted by a sexist hand and existed in a rather sexist setting (for the most parts). But to imply that these qualities were the only qualities that mattered or the only ones to come through doesn’t ring true to me.

Also, as represented by this picture, there is definitely a race element with Disney princesses. As feministing wondered, where are Pocahontas, Mulan and Disney’s newest princess, Tiana? Sure there’s sexism, but there’s a heck of a lot of racism, too.

What do you guys think?

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  • ShellyB @ at 1:05 pm, October 28th, 2009

    First of all, I somehow clicked 4 instead of 5 for the rating thing. sorry! i meant 5 for sure :)

    also, I think the picture does oversimplify some things about each of the “princesses” and its important that you point that out

    I find it deeply problematic that “regular” women aren’t glorified with Disney. Guess what, msot of us will NOT grow up to be in positions of public adoration, power etc. Most of us are taking each day, one at a time. How awesome it would be to have a disney cartoon of someone who makes an impact in their local community.

    Finally, I think that there are sexist and racist critiques to be made of the men and hegemonic masculinity that is uplifted in these movies.

    Thanks for the post!

  • Positively Present @ at 1:07 pm, October 28th, 2009

    You should check this scholarly article out:

    FROM BITING THE APPLE TO BREAKING THE SPELL:
    ANALYZING LOVE IN THE DISNEY PRINCESS COLLECTION

    Dominating such a large portion of today’s youth market, the Disney Princess Collection (DPC) plays an important role in American popular culture by exposing children to important mainstream American beliefs about gender, romance, and love. Images displayed through this collection of eight films—including Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, The Little Mermaid, Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin, Pocahontas, and Mulan—are part of an extensive marketing scheme that has the potential to significantly impact viewers. In this thesis, I will examine how the Walt Disney Company, one of the largest distributors of media to children, portrays romance, love, and happily-ever-after endings in this popular collection of animated films. Though Disney films have been previously analyzed in terms of gender, never before has the DPC been scrutinized as a whole. In this thesis, I will inspect DPC films exclusively in relation to love and romantic rituals. Though some scholars have touched on the issue of love in Disney films, none have analyzed DPC films independently from other Disney films or conducted a lengthy investigation of romance in Disney films. Though others may have investigated Disney films, none have assessed Disney sequels (and, in particular, DPC sequels) and how these films tie in with the entire Disney franchise. My thesis will shed a new light on Disney films and assess a very influential aspect of the Walt Disney Company that is often criticized but rarely analyzed.

  • Margherita @ at 1:08 pm, October 28th, 2009

    Another thought has always crossed my mind about the princesses – most of them are motherless (except Sleeping Beauty, I think). Curious, right?

    I’m a huge fan of Disney, but that has always troubled me.

  • Zoe @ at 3:28 pm, October 28th, 2009

    I agree that while Disney is pretty blatant with it’s sexism, small strengths don’t get discussed too often. Indeed, Belle loved books which I think is a wonderful thing to promote. And Jasmine did want to choose her husband instead of having it forced upon her. The older princesses, like Snow White, Cinderella and Aurora, unfortunately don’t have many redeeming qualities.

  • kimi @ at 4:18 pm, October 28th, 2009

    I agree with Zoe the earlier princesses did not have many redeeming qualities. Because when those movies came out women still had a low social status. Just last month in my class we were reading Mice and Men(1937), and through out the whole book the author was sexist towards women.

  • Becca @ at 12:06 am, October 29th, 2009

    One thing that often gets overlooked about Belle’s love of books, though, is that she appears to read mostly romance novels.

    She was definitely the Disney character I was able to relate to the most because of her love for reading, but unfortunately many of the Disney films have a tendency to balance a good quality (love of reading) with something equally sexist or otherwise degrading (romance novels!).

  • Mara @ at 1:17 am, October 29th, 2009

    I definitely agree that this image oversimplifies the Disney princesses a bit. The Beast falls for Belle, for example, and part of that bonding is through her teaching him to read. He doesn’t just fall for her because she’s, well, a beauty!

    On a side note, I’ve never really found Steinbeck (author of Of Mice and Men) to be sexist. Many of his most strong characters are women… for example, Rose of Sharon in The Grapes of Wrath.

  • Amy CT @ at 10:32 am, October 29th, 2009

    Mulan was always my favourite – because she kicks ass. :)

    I was always a feminist, I guess, even aged six – before I even knew feminism existed.

  • O'Phylia @ at 11:36 am, October 29th, 2009

    I think the stories themselves aren’t meant to be sexist, but Disney played the fairy tales that way.
    With Snow White, that’s pretty much straight up sexist: all she dreams of is a prince to come for her, that’s her one and only goal. Nothing to benefit society? How about helping the seven dwarves instead of the other way around for a change? But no, she is simply waiting for a prince.
    I never saw Sleeping Beauty, but in Jasmine’s defense, she was the one with the wit to save Aladdin. She fooled Jafar, and not to mention her rebellion against her father’s wishes is pretty awesome *does a fist pump* And I think how the presenter said “the wit of a street-rat” sounds pretty classist. As if those without money have no way of being intelligent.
    Ariel always wanted to walk, it’s not because of a guy. And I remember her saving him in the beginning, so wasn’t he simply returning the favor more than anything?
    I relate to Belle SOOO much. I always have my nose in a book, and I left my home town for “something more.” Isn’t it bravery to risk one’s life for their parents? That’s something generally left for the “prince” or “hero” of the fairy tale, but here we have a woman concerned about the welfare of her single father. That’s strength if I ever saw it. I’m a cynic about love as much as the next person, but I do believe that the beast and Belle were in it. Deep. It wasn’t just “sexuality.”
    With Cinderella, Disney does put too much emphasis on how she NEEDED a prince. The original story was to tell people that hard work will pay off in the end.
    And I saw she left out Pocahontas (my favorite!!!) and Mulan. I think they would have devalued her claim~
    All in all, Disney themselves have made some pretty anti-feminist characters, but it’s not the fairy tales themselves.

  • Alex Catgirl @ at 12:31 pm, October 29th, 2009

    Disney 1950fies and christianizes old faerie tales, leaving out some very important details, but they add lots of animals so it sorta works out.

    Some of what people find as odd about faerie tales just show how different things are today. Margherita pointed out how many of the heroines were motherless, that’s not so curious when put in historical context of when those tales were first told and/or written down (500 BCE -early 1900s) women use to die all the time in child birth, or of diseases so single dads were sorta the norm, they would remarry (hence the number of evil step-mums who were jealous of the previous wife’s daughters) or the grandmothers/aunts would move in to tended to the children.

    The other apparent quirk is the prominence of prince/princesses in the stories – faerie tales are paganistic, having “royal” blood matters very much in many of those belief systems. I wrote a term paper to explain the nuances of how it all works for an English class a few years ago.

    So between Disney 1950ing the stories, and feminists deconstructing the films using a Judaeo–Christian lens you end up with a critique that makes no sense :D :D :D

  • Alex Catgirl @ at 12:46 pm, October 29th, 2009

    My favorite princess is the little mermaid, the critics got that one 100% wrong.

    The “drastic transformation” was in fact LEGS, kinda hard to explore the human world without them…and people would kinda notice the huge fish tail.

    2.) Her voice was taken away as she could enchant with it, “you are going to marry me” – yes ma’am.

    3.) The little mermaid saved the prince(from drowning), not vice versa

    Hans Christian Anderson’s version of the tale is much better, but the ending isn’t as happy…most real faerie tale endings are not (oh sweet irony :D :D :D )

  • Toongrrl @ at 3:23 pm, October 29th, 2009

    Here’s some points:
    -When Walt Disney started working on “Snow White”, he wanted the princess to look like an innocent young girl, she looked as though she just started puberty. Now the people at Disney have slimmed her down (esp. in the waist) and added more flesh to her bosoms. Things have so not improved since 1937…
    -Sleeping Beauty and Cinderella, there were more fairies and the stepsisters were beautiful originally.
    -Jasmine is badass in my old young mind. I wonder why she was drawn very thin and why she’s dressed the way she is (that doesn’t seem realistic).
    -Ariel fared much better in the Disney version than in the original story (Hans Christian Anderson was depressed).
    -Belle was awesome.
    -Where is Mulan, Eilowny, Tiana, and Pocahauntas? For that matter, where is Atta and Dot?
    I recommend “From Walt to Woodstock” everybody for an alternative view!!

  • Jen @ at 3:59 pm, October 29th, 2009

    disney isnt sexist, all the disney princesses are from folklore stories. so don’t blame disney for it their just recreating stories people have wrote long ago.And everyone of these stories has been changed for children, all of these storiest THE REAL stories not the disney ones have fucked up things happen to them, usually death or heartache. look it up ;P

  • Becca @ at 10:14 pm, October 29th, 2009

    Jen- I have read many of the original stories the Disney films are based on, and have in fact worked on research projects in the past comparing the two.

    Disney changes the story lines a great deal, and yes, often inserts sexist and racist undertones where there were not any before. Are you referring to a specific instance?

  • kenzi @ at 8:56 am, November 6th, 2009

    also ariel wanted legs so she could walk on earth and have more opportunities. “betcha on land, theyd understand, bet they dont reprimand their daughters. bright young women, sick of swimmin’, ready to stand.”

  • kamikita @ at 1:33 am, December 12th, 2009

    Ariel gave her only identificating (her voice) to help gain the attention of a man..if ariel wanted so badly to just go on land…she could which is how she saved the prince from drowning…Another issue with Ariel is that she didn’t actually do much (like most of the early princess is) she was manipulated by the older villian for the villians own purposes. (always a woman in there sexual prim, who get to die). Not one disney princess actually defeats a bad guy…they are all heavily dependent of there male counter parts

  • O'Phylia @ at 12:14 am, December 16th, 2009

    [SPOILER ALERT]
    >kamikita: Actually, a Disney princess DOES defeat the villain on her own C: See the latest one.

  • Laura @ at 3:29 pm, February 24th, 2010

    ShellyB,
    I’m very interested in the article you posted about for a paper I’m writing, but I can’t seem to find it anywhere. Do you know how I would access it?
    Thanks!

  • shannon @ at 11:52 pm, March 2nd, 2010

    mulan is not a princess
    i don’t get why people keep thinking that she is

  • Arie Goto @ at 1:03 am, March 27th, 2010

    Praise God for all He is doing. Thanks!

  • Bart @ at 9:36 am, May 13th, 2010

    It is kind of interesting though, how many prinCESSES Disney has. Yes, there are elements of sexism and racism here – but surely it must say something that in all these movies the main characters are in fact FEMALE! Can’t really think of any Disney film where the hero is male (well, barring Aladdin) but otherwise the females seem to have the central role and the Prince is just a pretty-faced supporting character. Hmmm…

  • Lauren @ at 11:18 pm, June 1st, 2010

    There are so many things wrong with the messages Disney sends to our children. It’s not just the Princess concept (or the pervasive marketing). Here’s our reasoning on why Disney is COMPLETELY banned from our house. (And we have four girls.)
    http://www.sparklingadventures.com/index.php?id=667

  • Nikki @ at 7:46 pm, November 8th, 2010

    The thing about Belle liking books is responded to with sexism though. Gaston tells her that it’s not right for women to read because she starts getting ideas and thinking.
    @Bart Yes the main character in most movies may be famale but the prince is NOT just a pretty faced supporting character. The prince is always the one that rescues the princess from the miserable life she was having before he came, this is true in snow white, Aladdin, sleeping beauty, cinderella etc.
    Also Disney has a few movies where males are the main character, unless you’re referring to just fairy tale prince/princess movies.

  • Eliza @ at 9:19 pm, November 15th, 2010

    Bart, I believe the entire basis of Hurcules was about a MAN building strength and godliness from peasantry. Just as well, Meg wasn’t a helpless girl, to say the least. In their first meeting, she insists she is fine on her own, and persists that attitude and is reluctant to admit she is falling for him. However, although she is under a strong influence by Hades, she deliberately disobeys him and follows what she thinks is right for her. And she is very vocal about it to him. Also, there is a somewhat sexist point where she must be saved by a god because she is nearly dead, but I think that is rather just a key point to the plot. Like I said, she wasn’t helpless throughout the movie. But anyone cwould be when they’re dead. I suppose anything can be sexist if you look at it too much.

  • Mackenzie @ at 9:09 pm, December 24th, 2010

    When I was younger it was all about Pocahontas. I watched the movie a countless number of times, I dressed up as her, and had sheets with images from the movie on them. I think the reason I admired her character so much then and now is because (at least as she is portrayed in the movie) she has several striking feminist qualities. She is a free spirit, bold, brave, a leader, and community oriented. Perhaps she does fit into Disney’s physical standard so they don’t get a 10/10. However, the ending stands out from the other DPC plots because she chooses her family and her duty to her community over her “prince”. Oh and ALSO I am annoyed that she is rarely considered to be a Disney Princess- her father it the chief which should translate to king but I guess according to Disney you’re not a REAL princess if you scrape your knee one in a while. In retrospect, I think Pocahontas may have significantly contributed to the feminist person I grew up to be.

  • A. Stovall @ at 9:04 am, January 7th, 2011

    @Mackenzie
    “but I guess according to Disney you’re not a REAL princess if you scrape your knee once in a while.”

    I don’t know about that. Mulan made the Disney Princess ranks and she’s not even royalty or marries into royalty, even though she was injured in battle.

    While on the subject of Mulan, she’s always been my favorite female Disney character. She was the one that won my childhood obsession because of her strong messages of girl power and not having to conform to society’s standards to be awesome. Also, she doesn’t get married by the end of her movie! (I know there’s a sequel where she most likely pursues romance with Shang, but I haven’t seen it and I don’t want to)

    For the actual article: I don’t think the picture presented does justice for Belle, Ariel, and Jasmine. Others have addressed these issues, so I won’t repeat what they said.

  • kaylee rowley @ at 5:02 pm, February 10th, 2011

    i think that all of this is just some men trying to make themselves feel better cuz a women probely made im feel infeareer!!!!!!! :(

  • anonymous @ at 9:03 pm, May 21st, 2011

    Kaylee for god’s sake if you’re going to make a point at least learn how to spell. You killed the entire atmosphere of the post!

  • Renee @ at 10:10 pm, May 25th, 2011

    while I loved the animal disney films more I’d like to point out that if you look at the princess timeline you do see that they are getting more and feminest snow white and tiana for example snow white only wanted a prince and she cooked and cleaned for seven mean…but tiana wants a restaurant and to make her and her fathers dream come true and she worked hard to get it for tiana the prince was just a bonus…but also it should be noted that the origin of these stories (i mean pre Grimm) was nowhere near for children…if they clean it up and make it all whitebread than I’m happy…

  • Ruslan Amirkhanov @ at 6:32 pm, May 31st, 2011

    I hate Disney with all of my heart(we have a history, Disney and I), but I have to say that the idea of women getting married for political reasons is one of the few historically accurate things you will find in a Disney cartoon. People need to understand that marriage, for most of its existence, was never about “love”, nor did marriage have the same form with which it is associated today. This is why I laugh when I see those anti-gay folks saying “MARRIAGE = 1 MAN + 1 WOMAN”. In reality through most of human societies it was something more like “MARRIAGE = 1 MAN + 1 WOMAN + SEVERAL MISTRESSES, PROSTITUTES, SLAVE GIRLS, OR WHATEVER HE COULD GET ON THE SIDE.

    Of course the latter won’t be so visible on a bumper sticker.

  • Julie Perrault Wallbridge @ at 9:49 pm, June 2nd, 2011

    I really appreciate your balanced approach here. It is easy to jump on the shortcomings, but at the end of the day these movies created a great deal of magic in the hearts of little girls for decades now. It is our job as parents to explain the differences between what we are seeing on the tv and real life – and to spend far more time showing them real life than watching tv. In the meantime, I love watching Disney movies with my daughter – my son also has a favourite princess and I love that!

  • Hope @ at 4:15 am, July 13th, 2011

    Not one disney princess defeats a bad guy??? What about Mulan?! I recall she gets recognized by an emperor and a crowd of thousands for saving her country. On top of that, she protects her old father who would’ve died had he fought. Plus, she won the attention of a man through bravery and wit–not beauty. He was definitely going “ga-ga” over her while she was still dressed up in her warrior outfit without makeup or hair done.

    The main reason Ariel lost her voice was because the story would’ve been cut way too short had she been able to say “By the way, I’m the mermaid that saved you!” Also, her body didn’t change for the prince, it was so she could explore the land like she wanted to do waaaaay before she saved prince charming from drowning.

    It should also be noted that movies tend to reflect the time period—notice how snow white was made in the late 30s and mulan was created in the late 90s. MAJOR shift in values right there.

    I don’t think disney princesses deserve an anti- feminist stamp on them…they’re actually progressing quite nicely with the times :)

  • Heywait @ at 6:56 am, August 15th, 2011

    The Lion King was told through a male perspective; I rather enjoyed it over any princess movie as a little girl. Meanwhile my brother’s favorite Disney movie was Mulan.

    SO HA!

  • brittany S. @ at 6:56 pm, October 4th, 2011

    I definitely think Disney puts a lot of oppressive gender roles in their films. The Little Mermaid is easily the worst to me: to show a woman giving up her legs, voice, and basically dignity, to woo a man with her looks alone.. is insulting to women and offensive to show to small children. That being said, it is also bothersome how extreme people take “sexism” too. Yes some of the roles are archaic and stereotypical, but as you mentioned, Disney never claims they are “JUST” a or “JUST” b. THey do have other qualities, and usually choose love over other goals. My main problem is that to me this shows small children that this is the only purpose in a woman’s life. If Disney films had more variation, these gender roles would seem less harsh.

  • leita @ at 6:14 pm, October 27th, 2011

    Important things left out: snow white not only was valued for her beauty but for her housekeeping skills, which actually makes it worse…and belle HAD intellect, but the story turned this into something bad: she was only valued for her beauty. Also, her two options were a very blatantly sexist man (Gaston, who in the musical version not on the tv he is even more so) and an abusive one.

  • Brigit @ at 2:57 pm, November 10th, 2011

    I am studying Disneys representation of women for my film A level, and I was wondering if any of you held a point of view on his sexism/representation of gender in either of the films, The little mermaid, Mulan or Snow White? Also if you knew of any books or websites that could help me with my research?

  • Sara @ at 1:18 pm, November 20th, 2011

    Jasmine may have demanded who she wanted to marry, but he had to become a prince.. sooo..

  • Sara @ at 1:23 pm, November 20th, 2011

    and of course Disney characters of anti-feminist, even Mulan. Underlying messages are very anti-feminist. These movies are created by the elite, white men (usually), brainwashing you basically. I loved Disney movies but its sad to see it as an adult and realize the messages that they were portraying.

  • Caroline @ at 11:53 pm, February 17th, 2012

    Honestly, who cares? Disney Princess movies are not made to feature regular women, or be a political statement. They are fantasies about how viewers want to be girly and wear pretty dresses and find a handsome prince. Not to mention, Disney didn’t write these, they’re all based on fairy tales.
    On the subject more specifically of Ariel:
    She saved his life first, in fact he never really saves her life….also, if a guy had done what she did to win over a girl it would be considered totally romantic, and not sexist at all. Should a girl sit back and wait for a guy to come to her? And what about movies such as Sleeping Beauty, Snow White? People all say that princesses only ever do something involving their sexual assets, but those princes did nothing but give the girls a kiss on the lips. Ok, Phillip fought a dragon, whatever.
    I think people should stop trying to ruin my childhood….Disney is amazing.

  • Gigi @ at 11:41 pm, May 7th, 2012

    I think alot of people really don’t undestand how anti-feminest disney is. First of look at the timeline of events when disney began to use media as a means of trying to manipulate and brain was people. Snow White came out in 1937 right around the time of world war two, this is also the time when Rosi showed up. Women stopped working so much at home and started to work in factories taking the jobs of the men who went to war. It seems to me that as a way of trying to remind women of there place and also the impressionable children they came out with Snow white…who the movie could have been made without snow white in it. The same goes for Cinderella and Sleeping Beauty (even though they came out at different times) By the time the little memaid came out, feminism was in full swing and women demanded a more up-to-date princess. Thus we have Ariel the princess who was a talented singer and devoted to art. She gives up everything, her family, her voice and undergoes drastic changes for…bum bum bum…a man..she saw on a ship. Now i’ve heard people say she always wanted to be human…not true she wanted to engage humans, not be human (until she saw Eric). So thats her happily ever after. Now i’m sorry for all of you beauty and the beast fans but Bell is the worst to me, because everyone talks about how she is so smart and she reads and she’s proactive. Well honestly the only book you actually saw her reading and enjoying was a romance novel. She allowed the beast to be abusive towards her. and she had the since to run away…and lost that point by coming back and staying. The main thing i want you all to look at is in these movies who is really the hero (meaning who finally really kills the bad guys)
    In Snow White the seven dwarf (Men) case the witch up the hill where she got stuck by lighting. In Cinderella the prince takes her out of her bad situation. In Sleeping Beauty, Phillip kill Meleficent. In the Little Mermaid Eric stabs Ursula with a boat. In Beauty and the Beast, the beast tosses Gueston of a building. In Mulan, Mushu lights the Fire work and blows up Han. In The Frog Princess that creepy stuff ate him. In repunzle that dude cuts her hair and the witch dies. My point is that there in no princess who actully takes care of themselves…it seem that there is always someone else who does the dirty work.

  • lin @ at 7:42 pm, November 21st, 2012

    people complain that the prince always saves the princess… but, disney has done much better in recent years.

    ariel saves eric twice before he saves her. rapunzel and eugene each save each other several times.

    nearly everything is sexist against women and or men if you really want to argue it.

    avoid the really blatant stuff (snow white and cinderella)… but otherwise just make sure to discuss pros and cons of a film with your kids.

  • doitsu @ at 11:05 am, January 10th, 2013

    Actually, Mulan would have supported the picture. Remember the line “did they send me daughters/when I asked for sons?”? Or how Shang was trying to hide his shattered ego and infuriation at Mulan when he finds out she’s a girl because A. She managed to surpass him and the others and B. Because he had his life saved by a girl. Not only that, but he was trying to be “charitable” to a “stupid woman who tried to decieve the army” when he spared her life. What he did would have been more of a dishonour to her and her family than her death if she had not saved China. And then, he fixes his shattered ego by claiming her as a possable wife. You do realize he would never had talked to her again if she hadn’t accomplished all she did. All Disney is saying is that sure, women can save the world, but at the end of the day a woman is ment to have and be loyal to a husband. Remember how the father’s family is ment to take over the guardians in the second movie? Or how those princesses were brainwashed to all they want to do is serve a husband and China? Yeah, they got freedom from half of the deal, but notice how all of the main female characters that are of age get married. Sure one can ommit that partially because of the time period, but Disney also left out the bit that the three princesses should have had their feet bound (in the origional version Mulan’s father had not wanted her feet bound) and wouln never have been able to do all the things they did. It was a cover up, something only an older person would notice.

  • PunkySkunky @ at 1:02 am, April 21st, 2013

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dazOOKyTjvo this video can best explain how i see it… its doug walkers “What’s with the Princess Hate?” an well researched little documentation about the disney princess’s and no the disney princess’s arent really sexist… they are a productof their time and we slowly start to see sexism where is none… so people watch this video and THINK and dont become an anti sex feminist

  • Cornflower @ at 8:49 pm, February 15th, 2014

    Let me get some stuff straight here. Two of the princess never were looking for a prince. All they were looking for was someone to treat them like a human being (being a servant in years like the movies depicted) weren’t excatly postive. Have you read Harry Potter? You know how the houselves are not seen or heard (Dobby’s exception)? That’s bsically the attitude towards servants even through the 1919+ So that if a servant ‘saw’ their master or mistress coming they would have to pretend to be invisible. For Cidnerella-Except for Breakfast, lunch and supper, and any other times the steps need her, she’s suppose to be invisible. I assume the same for Snow White. Ariel she wanted to be human years before Eric. Aurora well she was only being arranged to be married for poltical reasons. She just ‘happened’ to fall in love with Phillip prior to the marriage unlike afterwards. Belle is the nerd

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